Types of Research - A Brief Guide on Research Conduction!

The Ultimate Concept and Types of Research

The Ultimate Concept

Are you about to conduct research?

Do you have enough knowledge about it?

Do you know about the types of research?

Tired of seeking desired information?

Here you will find solutions to all your queries about the concept and different types of research

What is meant by research?

Research is a careful consideration of a study regarding a particular problem by using scientific methods. It is mostly done to broaden knowledge.

It is also defined as a systematic investigation to explain, predict, and control the observed process. It can be carried out by anyone and in any field.

The ‘systematic investigation’ represents the normal way to conduct the research. 

Why research is conducted?

Researchers carry out research for different reasons like;

● To identify potential and new information

● To understand existing information

● To set pragmatic goals

● To develop productive strategies

● To address existing and upcoming challenges

● To put together future plans

● To identify new opportunities

● Sometimes it is an important requirement of a degree, mostly at Masters and Ph.D. level

Whatever the reason is, it should be precise, clear, and accurate.

How to conduct research?

Conducting research needs complete dedication and focus. If it is conducted systematically then it is way easy. Following general steps make it more systemized. These general steps include;

● Forming a hypothesis 

● Developing topic

● Preliminary search from existing information

● Designing an appropriate research method

● Locate materials

● Evaluate the sources of information 

● Collection of data is collected 

● Making notes

● Analyzing data 

● Summarization of research results 

● Generating conclusions 

● Proper citation

● Proofreading 

Keeping in mind these steps will help you to carry out successful research.

The general format of research report writing

The general format that is involved in almost all the types of research report while writing them is as follows;

● Title page

● Table of contents 

● Abstract

● Introduction

● Review of literature

● Methodology

● Results and discussion

● Conclusion

● Recommendations

● References 

Types of research

There are numerous types of research that are used by different researchers in different phenomenon. Out of these different types of research I have summed up some of them for you. 

These types are as follows;

● Basic 

● Applied

● Exploratory

● Explanatory 

● Qualitative

● Quantitative

● Descriptive 

● Correlation 

● Inductive

● Deductive 

Basic research

Basic research is also referring as pure research. It is based on an original investigation into the reasons behind a process. 

The focus of basic research is to generate knowledge that revolves around already existing basic principles.

It does not focus on solving practical problems that’s why is it also considered as ‘non-commercial research’. Moreover, it has no immediate benefit or process.

Applied research

This type of research investigates theories and principles in order to enhance knowledge. In this type, the researcher focuses more on solving real-life problems. It derives knowledge that has an immediate application.

Exploratory research

Exploratory research aims to explore the main aspects of such a problem that is under research. No previous research is present in this type.

Explanatory research

Explanatory research aims to explain the causes and consequences of a well-defined problem that is already researched by others.

Qualitative research

In this type of research, the sample is selected on the basis of quality rather than quantity. It focuses on the traits and meanings of the sample.

Quantitative research

In quantitative research the sample to be tested in selected on the basis of quantity. It is focused on the number and quantity of the sample.

Descriptive research

It defines the characteristics of a particular process without necessarily investigating the causes of its production.

In descriptive research, the researcher must take particular care not to intervene in the observed phenomenon. This intervening may change its behavior if an external factor is involved.

Correlation research

The purpose of a correlation type of scientific research is to identify the relationship between two or more than two variables. 

It aims to determine the changes in the variables and how much the other elements of the observed system change.

Inductive research

In the inductive method of research, the knowledge is generated from an observation to achieve a state of generalization. It is based on the collection of data to develop new theories.

Deductive research

In the deductive method of research, the reality is explained by general laws that indicate certain conclusions. These conclusions are expected to be part of the research problem and considered correct if it is valid. It also depends on the correct application of the inductive method.

General properties of a good research

Properties of anything define that thing and make it what it is. The general properties of good research are;

● It follows a systematic approach to obtain accurate data

● It involves logical reasoning 

● Derives original data and knowledge from observations in natural settings

● In-depth analysis of collected data to assure that there are no anomalies associated with it

● It creates a path for new questions

● It is analytical 

● It uses all the available data to avoid any sort of ambiguity in inference

● It is accurate and correct 

Core characteristics of research

There are 8 core characteristics of research; every research should include these characteristics. They are as follows;

Core characteristics of research

Empirical 

The most important characteristic is that the research should be based on proven scientific methods that should be derived from original observations and experiments.

Logical 

The research should be logical and have solid reasoning. It should follow sequential procedures based on valid principles.

Cyclic 

The research should be cyclic in nature. It should begin with a question and ends with a question as well. That means it should start from existing questions and ultimately leads to a new line of questioning at the end.

Controlled 

The research should be controlled and vigorous measures should be put into place to keep all variables constant, except those variables that are under investigation.

Hypothesis-based 

The data generated from the research should sufficiently meet the objectives of the research. It should have the ability to prove or disprove the hypothesis. If the research is based on a hypothesis then it will make the research study repeatable and give credibility to the results.

Analytical 

Being analytical ensures maximum accuracy and repeatability while minimizing potential errors and anomalies.

Objective 

The researcher uses sound judgment to ensure that the research findings are valid.

Statistical treatment 

The data is transformed by statistical treatment into something more meaningful which can be used as a source from which knowledge can be gained.

Research methods and research methodology

Research methods are technical or procedural rules that are employed to generate and analyze the data. It is different from research methodology that is the broad theoretical and philosophical framework within which particular research is undertaken.

Types of research methods

The types of research methods are as follows;

● Experiments 

● Surveys

● Questionnaires

● Interviews

Case studies 

● Participant and non-participant observation

● Observational trials

● Studies using the Delphi method

Research reports

Research report writing is very common among students in their academic life. It is a publication that reports on the findings of a research project or scientific observations by the researcher.

Types of research reports

The types of research reports are as follows;

● Journal articles

● Technical research reports

● Monographs

● Thesis or dissertations

Qualitative types of research 

The six qualitative types of research are;

1. Phenomenological model

2. Ethnographic model

3. Grounded theory model

4. Case study

5. Historical model 

6. Narrative model

Phenomenological model

The phenomenological method of research describes how any participant experiences a specific event. In this method, the researchers use interviews, observations, and surveys to collect information from subjects. 

Ethnographic model

It is one of the most popular and widely recognized methods of qualitative research. The main purpose of it is to learn and describe the characteristics of the selected culture. It often immerses the researcher as a subject for extended periods of time. 

Grounded theory model

This model explains the reason for the evolution of the course of action. 

It looks at a large number of subjects. 

Case study

This model provides an in-depth look at one experimental subject. The subject can be anything, a person, family, business, organization, town, or city. Data is collected from different sources and compiled by using the details to generate a conclusion. 

Historical model

It describes past events in order to get a better understanding of present patterns and anticipate future choices. It also answers questions based on a hypothetical idea and uses resources to experiment with the idea for any potential deviations. 

Narrative model

It occurs over extended periods of time and compiles the necessary information. Moreover, it takes the subjects to the starting point and reviews the situations as obstacles or opportunities. However, it doesn't always remain in chronological order. 

What is involved in research?

The research follows a systematic approach that is “Scientific Method”. 

It starts with a problem statement or the research purpose for engaging in the study. 

The researcher creates a research methodology and collects the data.

That data is analyzed using various statistical methods.

After testing the research is shared with the wider research community.

Conclusion 

The steps only outline the overall research process. The research projects are actually highly dynamic in nature; therefore they are considered a process that needs continued refinements and it is not a series of fixed steps.

Students may find it difficult to conduct full-fledged research and then write it down. For this purpose, they can get help from online sources. These online sources are the websites over the internet like Case48 that provides writing services from professional research writers to the students.

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